One hundred eleven years ago today, on April 18 at 5:12 a.m., a violent earthquake shook San Francisco.


This was 30 years before the Richter scale was developed to measure an earthquake’s magnitude, and nearly 70 years before the system we use today, the Moment Magnitude scale. The scale ranks an earthquake on a scale of 1 – 10, with 10 being the most catastrophic. Each step accounts for 32x increase of energy expended.

The San Andreas fault

The 1906 earthquake is estimated to have been a 7.8. For comparison, an average tornado is around 4.8, the atomic bomb on Hiroshima was about 6.2, and a Mt. St. Helen’s eruption is about 7.6.

18 April 1906

When you consider the damage done by the earthquake (and most disasters), it is really incredible to think about how quickly they happen. In 1906, the timeline was very short:

5:12 a.m. Strong foreshock occurs, lasting 23 seconds.

5:13 a.m. The main shock occurred, and it lasted 42 seconds.

And it was over by 5:14 a.m. But several separate forces – the damage from the earthquake, the aftershocks, and the gas lines that provided energy to the city – collided with one another and a fire ignited. The city burned for three days.

But San Francisco was destined to be more than a sepia-toned memory. The people refused to let the city lay in ruins, or to scatter and rebuild elsewhere. San Francisco defiantly built itself back up, grander and more flamboyant than before. The fingerprints of the old earthquake are faded but visible,  a reminder of San Francisco’s great courage and resilience.

Emma Martina Luigia Morano, the oldest person in the world, died today. Emma was born in Italy, on November 29, 1899, the oldest of nine children. She was the last person known to have been born in the 19th century still living.

Her life stretched across three centuries and two World Wars.

Emma in 1920s

The great tragedy of her life occurred during World War One, when the man she was in love with was killed. In 1926, she married Giovanni Martinuzzi after he threatened to kill her if she didn’t. He was abusive toward her, and they separated after their only child died in 1937, at six months of age. However, she did not divorce Martinuzzi and they remained legally married until his death in 1975. Emma never remarried; she was unable to forget her soldier that she had loved and lost, in the Great War.

Emma, age 114, sits beside a photograph of herself, circa 1930

She retired from a local jute factory the year before her estranged husband died. Emma had many years left in her life: in addition to her husband and son, she outlived her parents, five sisters, and three brothers.

She died at home in the small apartment that she had not left in 20 years, at age 117. The secret to her longevity, she said, was staying single, avoiding drugs, practicing a healthy diet (three eggs a day, and a glass of homemade brandy), and – most importantly – positive thinking.

Farewell, Emma!

Victorians rarely smiled in pictures, so they look stiff and starched to modern eyes. The staid images staring out at us seem like they never laughed or wasted time or thought about anything interesting.

When photography was young, getting your picture made was a major event that required that required Solemnity and Poise. Subjects had to sit absolutely still for several minutes because any movement on the subject’s part caused a thick blur on the image. Also, Victorians really valued conformity and privacy. They didn’t want to stand out or draw undue attention to themselves.

That’s why it’s so delightful to find some strange detail or flaw in an old picture.   Occasionally, it’s something funny but usually, it’s just a little oddity, some obscure clue to their humanity or their environment. Here are a few photos with serendipitous details. If you happen to be very observant, you might find a detail I missed. If so, please leave a comment and let me know!  🍀


Group on the porch, circa 1900

This semi-formal photograph was made circa 1900.

There are six people in the photo, but the subject is undoubtedly the girls, or maybe the girls’ shoes. There is a little boy next to the girls, but he’s clearly an afterthought. The mother is a watchful presence in the picture. It’s interesting to think about the choices the photographer made: Not everything would fit into the frame, so he chose to sacrifice the man standing in the back so he could be sure to get the girlsshoes in the picture. They are outside, but the girls’ feet are resting on a rug. They don’t look like the type of people who would leave a rug outside. There must be something about their shoes. (Also, I love the Peter Pan collar the girl on the left is wearing.)


Young Family, 1897

This photo depicts a young family sitting on their front porch circa 1895. Apart from its very modern-looking front door, this picture is interesting because only the man’s face is clear, while the woman and the baby are blurred in motion. Somehow looking at this photo gives me the idea – maybe completely wrong and unfair – that the man was really vain. Possibly because he was so careful not to move, and possibly because of his absurd hat.


1897 Indian groupThis picture has lots of hidden weirdness. Everyone is dressed in traditional American Indian clothing, except the woman on the right. Some people are looking seriously at the camera but something has caught the attention of the other people and they are looking to their left, at something we can’t see, and smiling. There’s also the little girl standing behind the woman, clutching a couple of rings. Her fingers are a little deformed.


This is a photo of the mayhem in San Francisco, immediately following the Great Quake of 1906.

Leaving San Francisco After the Great Quake, 1906

The flood of refugees are toting weapons, carrying food and luggage, and attempting to push their way out of the city. And right in the middle of this mass of unmoored humanity, we find our serendipitous detail. In the foreground, a lone policeman is trying to direct traffic. This guy was really dedicated to his craft!



The people in this picture aren’t doing anything, but they grow more and more interesting.

Family on the Porch, circa 1897

The couple on the left are probably the parents of the men on the right, but the boy seems too young to be their son. Maybe a grandson?  People (especially families) tend to mirror one another’s body language, but all five people are posing in distinctly different ways and their demeanors range from formal, to awkward, to saucy. Also, why is the guy on the far right wearing giant mittens? We can see the front door behind the men, but no steps are there. Did they just leap off the porch every morning? Way to start their day!